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?图表作文(一)?
第一节?图表作文的类型?
??图表作文可分为两大类:表作文和图作文。???表作文?
??表格(Table)可以使大量数据系统化,便于阅读、比较。表格常由标题(Title)、表头(Boxhead)(表格的第一行)、侧目(Stub)(表格左边的第一列)和主体(Body)部分(表格的其余部分)等部分组成。如下表:?
??用表格表达的信息具体准确,而且表格中的各项均按一定规律排列。阅读表格时要注意找出表格中各个项目的相互关系,表格中各个项目的变化规律。例如,上面的表格中的数字说明,和1978年相比,1983年大学入学的人数在增加,而小学的入学人数在减少。搞清楚这些变化规律也就读懂了表格的内容。???图作文?
??图作文又可分为三种:圆形图作文、曲线图作文和条状图作文。???(1)?圆形图作文?
??圆形图(Pie?chart)也称为饼状图或圆面分割图。圆形图因为比较形象和直观,各部分空间大小差别容易分辨,所以常用来表示总量和各分量之间的百分比关系。整个圆表示总量,楔形块表示分量。有时圆形图还有数值表,两者结合可把各分量表示得更准确、清楚。例如:???This?is?a?pie?chart?of?the?average?weekly?expenditure?of?a?family?in?Great?Britain.?As?can?be?see?from?the?chart,?the?main?expenditure?of?an?average?British?family?is?spent?on?food,?which?accounts?for?25%?of?its?total?expenditure.?The?next?two?significant?expending?items?are?transport?and?housing,?which?are?15%?and?12%?respectively.?If?we?take?into?account?clothing?and?footwear,?which?makes?up?10%,?the?four?essentials?of?life,?that?is,?food,?transport,?housing,?and?clothing?and?footwear,?amount?to?62%?of?the?total?expenditure.???(2)?曲线图作文?
??曲线图(Line?graph)也称为线性图或坐标图。曲线图最适合表示两个变量之间关系的发展过程和趋势。一般来说,曲线所呈现的形状比某一点所代表的变量的值更有意义。曲线图有横轴和纵轴。一般先看横轴所代表的数量或时间等,然后再看纵轴所显示的意义。同时必须找出线条所反映的最高或最低的变化。例如:?
??这个曲线图的横轴代表1990年的不同的月份,纵轴代表交通事故的数量。从交通事故曲线图上可知,前八个月的交通事故的数量有升有降。曲线图在八月份升到了最高点(39),此后一直呈下降的趋势,十二月份降到了最低点(16)。可见,1990年的交通事故的数量总体上呈下降的趋势。???(3)?条形图作文?
??条形图(Bar?graph)也称为立柱图或圆柱图。条形图由宽度相同但长度不同的条块代表不同的量。当要比较几个项目或量时,常用不同颜色来区分。条形图主要用来表示:1)同一项目在不同时间的量;2)同一时间不同项目的量。阅读条形图时,要先看图例,再看横轴、纵横各代表什么量,每一个刻度所代表的值是多少,最后找出图中各长条所表示的数据及各长条间的相互关系。例如:?
左边的条形图的横轴代表时间,纵轴代表期望寿命(Life?Expectancy),这一条形图想要体现的是同一项目(期望寿命)在不同时间的量。右边的条形图的横轴也是代表时间,纵轴是代表婴儿的死亡率(Infant?Mortality),这一条形图想要体现的也是同一项目(婴儿的死亡率)在不同时间的量。左边的条形图表明1990年的人均期望寿命比1960年的人均期望寿命长20岁,而1990年的婴儿死亡率比1960年的婴儿死亡率下降了50%。?

第二节?图表作文的出题形式?
例1?题目:Changes?in?People’s?Diet??
??Study?the?following?table?carefully?and?your?composition?must?be?based?on?the?information?given?in?the?table.?Write?three?paragraphs?to?:?
??1.?state?the?changes?in?people’s?diet?(饮食)?in?the?past?five?years;???2.?give?possible?reasons?for?the?changes;???3.?draw?your?own?conclusions.?
??You?should?quote?as?few?figures?as?possible.??
例2?题目:Car?Accidents?Declining?in?Walton?City???
Remember?that?your?composition?must?be?written?according?to?the?following?outline;???1.?Rise?and?fall?of?the?rate?of?car?accidents?as?indicated?by?the?graph;???2.?Possible?reason(s)?for?the?decline?of?car?accidents?in?the?city;???3.?Your?predictions?of?what?will?happen?this?year.?
??Your?composition?should?be?no?less?than?120?words?and?you?should?quote?as?few?figures?as?possible.????
例3?For?this?part,?you?are?allowed?30?minutes?to?write?a?composition?on?the?topic?Health?Gain?in?Developing?Countries.?Your?composition?must?be?no?less?than?120?words?and?you?should?base?your?composition?on?the?following?instructions?(given?in?Chinese):?
??1.?以下图为依据描述发展中国家的期望寿命(life?expectancy)和婴儿死亡率(infant?mortality)的变化情况?
??2.?说明引起变化的各种原因???从以上例子可见,图表作文一般在题目中给出作文的标题和一个或几个统计表格、圆形图、曲线图或条形图,有时还用英文或中文提纲的形式给出提示,要求我们:???1)用文字描述图表,客观解释图表中所传递的信息,并找出某种规律或趋势;?
2)就图表中所反映的某种趋势或问题分析其原因或后果。??
第三节?图表作文的写作要领?
??图表作文着重说明事实,常常是通过对图表中所反映的具体数据的说明、分析、比较,对某种事物或现象的事实或变化情况等加以说明,并提出结论或看法。因此,图表作文常常采用议论文体的写作方法。?
??写好图表作文,关键在于能否读懂图表中所提供的信息,把握各信息间的联系,用准确流畅的语言把这一信息表达出来,并就这一信息发表自己的看法。???图表作文的写作步骤?
??写图表作文时,要注意遵循以下步骤:?
??1)认真分析图表的含义,弄清图表中所含的信息及不同信息间的关系;?
??2)确定文章的主题思想,构思出文章的基本框架,筛选出能说明图表主题思想的典型数据;?
??3)编列文章的提纲;?
??4)根据文章的提纲,将各段的提纲内容扩展成段落,然后将各个段落组成文章,注意段与段之间的衔接与过渡;???5)检查与修改。?

??图表作文的篇章结构???写图表作文时,常采用三段式的谋篇方式。文章的第一段往往分析图表中的数据变化反映什么问题或趋势,概述图表所揭示的信息。第二段分析造成这一问题或趋势的原因。第三段则展望未来的情况或提出解决问题的办法或建议。这一结构可以简单地表述为:???第一段:概述图表反映的主题思想???第二段:分析产生的原因?
第三段:展望未来或提出方法或建议??
??图表作文常用的句型?
??(1)常用的开篇句型(即概述图表内容时常用的表达法)?
??①?According?to?the?table/pie?chart/line?graph/bar?graph,?we?can?see/conclude?that?…?根据该表/图,我们可知?……?
??②?The?table/graph?reveals?(shows/indicates/illustrates/?represents/points?out)?that?…?该表/图表明……?
??③?As?we?can?see?from?the?table?…?
??As?can?be?seen?from?the?line/bar?graph?…?
??As?is?shown?(illustrated/indicated)?in?the?pie?chart?…???如表/图所示,……?
??(2)?描述增减变化常用的句型?
??①?Compared?with?…?is?still?increased?by?…?
②?The?number?of?…?grew/rose?from?…?to?…?
??③?An?increase?is?shown?in?…;?then?came?a?sharp?increase?of?…???④?In?…?the?number?remains?the?same/drops?to?…?
⑤?There?was?a?very?slight?(small/slow/gradual)?rise/increase?in?1990.??
⑥There?was?a?very?steady?(marked/sharp/rapid/sudden/?dramatic)?drop?(decrease/?decline/?fall/?reduction)?in?1998/?compared?with?that?of?last?year).????下面是根据例2的题目要求写的范文。?
??⑴From?the?graph,?we?can?see?that?the?number?of?car?accidents?in?Walton?city?fluctuated?during?the?year?of?1990.?⑵The?first?two?months?of?1990?showed?an?increasing?trend.?⑶The?rate?rose?to?32?in?March?but?fell?to?26?in?June.?⑷From?June?on,?the?rate?was?rising?again?and?reached?the?peak?point?39?in?August.?⑸After?August?the?rate?began?to?decline?remarkably,?and?eventually?dropped?to?the?lowest?point?16?at?the?end?of?the?year.?⑹Therefore,?it’s?obvious?that?car?accident?in?Walton?city?declined?in?1990.⑴主题句/概述表格反映的内容⑵—(5)反映交通事故的变化情况(6)小结:总结表格数据反映的总趋势?
??⑺There?are?several?reasons?for?the?decline.?⑻First,?a?new?traffic?law?was?made?and?came?into?force.?⑼It?provided?that?in?summer?every?car?must?be?air-conditioned.?⑽As?a?result,?the?highest?rate?in?August,?when?humidity?and?high?temperature?make?drivers?impatient?and?easily?lead?to?car?accidents,?dropped?steadily.?⑾Second,?new?roads?were?built?and?some?narrow?streets?were?widened,?which?quickened?the?flow?of?traffic.?⑿Finally,?the?city?administration?made?great?efforts?to?heighten?people’s?awareness?of?observing?traffic?rules.⑺主题句⑻原因/措施一⑼解释措施一/次要辅助⑽采取措施一后的结果⑾原因/措施二⑿原因/措施三?
⒀With?all?these?new?measures,?I’m?sure?the?rate?of?car?accidents?in?Walton?city?will?go?on?falling?this?year.⒀总结:展望未来的情况

第四节、?图表作文练习及其参考范文?
??下面是写作练习,在写作的过程中注意审题,考虑文章的结构、采用的扩展方法、开头的结尾的方法以及文章中的过渡等。?
??练习1:Directions:?For?this?part,?you?are?allowed?thirty?minutes?to?write?a?composition?of?no?less?than?120?words?on?Changes?in?People’s?Diet.?Study?the?following?table?carefully?and?your?composition?must?be?based?on?the?information?given?in?the?table.?Write?three?paragraphs?to:???1.?state?the?changes?in?people’s?diet?(饮食)?in?the?past?five?years;???2.?give?possible?reasons?for?the?changes;???3.?draw?your?own?conclusions.?
??You?should?quote?as?few?figures?as?possible.?
??⑴As?is?shown?in?the?table,?there?have?been?great?changes?in?people's?diet?between?1986?and?1990.?⑵From?the?table,?we?can?find?that?grain,?formerly?the?main?food?of?most?Chinese?people,?is?now?playing?a?less?important?role?in?people's?diet.?⑶And?the?same?goes?for?fruit?and?vegetables.?⑷On?the?other?hand,?the?consumption?of?high-nutrition?food?such?milk?and?meat?has?increased?rapidly.?
??⑸What?has?caused?these?changes??There?are?mainly?three?reasons?(主题句).?(6)?First,?people?are?much?wealthier?than?before.?(7)?With?higher?income,?they?can?afford?to?buy?nutritious?foods.?(8)?Second,?people?have?realized?the?importance?of?a?balanced?diet?to?their?health.?(9)?Lack?of?certain?amount?of?meat?or?milk,?for?example,?will?result?in?poor?health.?(10)?Finally,?owing?to?the?economic?reform,?meat?and?milk,?which?were?scarce?in?the?past,?are?produced?in?large?quantities.???(11)?Although?milk?and?meat?are?important?to?one's?health,?eating?too?much?rich?food?may?result?in?obesity?and?may?other?diseases.?(12)Therefore,?people?should?not?only?eat?a?lot?of?milk?and?meat,?but?also?enough?grain,?fruit?and?vegetable?for?the?sake?of?their?health.???
图表作文(二)?
一、图表作文写作常识?
??1、图形种类及概述法:?
??泛指一份数据图表:a?data?graph/chart/diagram/illustration/table???饼图:pie?chart?
??直方图或柱形图:bar?chart?/?histogram???趋势曲线图:line?chart?/?curve?diagram???表格图:table?
??流程图或过程图:flow?chart?/?sequence?diagram???程序图:processing/procedures?diagram???2、常用的描述用法?
??The?table/chart?diagram/graph?shows?(that)???According?to?the?table/chart?diagram/graph?
??As?(is)?shown?in?the?table/chart?diagram/graph?
??As?can?be?seen?from?the?table/chart/diagram/graph/figures,???figures/statistics?shows?(that)……???It?can?be?seen?from?the?figures/statistics???We?can?see?from?the?figures/statistics???It?is?clear?from?the?figures/statistics?
??It?is?apparent?from?the?figures/statistics?
??table/chart/diagram/graph?figures?(that)?……?
??table/chart/diagram/graph?shows/describes/illustrates?how……???3、图表中的数据(Data)具体表达法?
??数据(Data)在某一个时间段固定不变:fixed?in?time???在一系列的时间段中转变:changes?over?time???持续变化的data在不同情况下:???增加:increase?/?raise?/?rise?/?go?up?……?
??减少:decrease?/?grow?down?/?drop?/?fall?……???波动:fluctuate?/?rebound?/?undulate?/?wave?……???稳定:remain?stable?/?stabilize?/?level?off?……???最常用的两种表达法:?
??动词+副词形式(Verb+Adverb?form)?
??形容词+名词形式(Adjective+Noun?form)?
??
二、相关常用词组???1、主章开头?
??图表类型:table、chart、diagramgraph、column?chart、pie?graph?
??描述:show、describe、illustrate、can?be?seen?from、clear、apparent、reveal、represent?
??内容:figure、statistic、number、percentage、proportion???2、表示数据变化的单词或者词组?
??rapid/rapidly?迅速的,飞快的,险峻的???dramatic/dramatically?戏剧性的,生动的?
??significant/significantly?有意义的,重大的,重要的???sharp/sharply?锐利的,明显的,急剧的???steep/steeply?急剧升降的?
??steady/steadily?稳固的,坚定不移的???gradual/gradually?渐进的,逐渐的???slow/slowly?缓慢的,不活跃的???slight/slightly?轻微的、略微地???stable/stably?稳定的?
??3、其它在描述中的常用到的词?
??significant?changes?图中一些较大变化???noticeable?trend?明显趋势?
??during?the?same?period?在同一时期???grow/grew?增长?
??distribute?分布,区别???unequally?不相等地?
??in?the?case?of?adv.?在……的情况下?
??in?terms?of?/?in?respect?of?/?regarding?在……方面???in?contrast?相反,大不相同???government?policy?政府政策???market?forces?市场规率?
??measure??n.尺寸,方法,措施v.估量,调节?
forecast??n.先见,预见v.预测?
?
三、英语图表写作套句精选?
??1.the?table?shows?the?changes?in?the?number?of……over?the?period?from……to……???该表格描述了在……年之……年间……数量的变化。????2.the?bar?chart?illustrates?that……??该柱状图展示了……???3.the?graph?provides?some?interesting?data?regarding……???该图为我们提供了有关……有趣数据。?
??4.the?diagram?shows?(that)……??该图向我们展示了……???5.the?pie?graph?depicts?(that)……??该圆形图揭示了……?
??6.this?is?a?cure?graph?which?describes?the?trend?of……这个曲线图描述了……的趋势。???7.the?figures/statistics?show?(that)……??数据(字)表明……?
??8.the?tree?diagram?reveals?how……??该树型图向我们揭示了如何……???9.the?data/statistics?show?(that)……??该数据(字)可以这样理解……???10.the?data/statistics/figures?lead?us?to?the?conclusion?that……???这些数据资料令我们得出结论……?
??11.as?is?shown/demonstrated/exhibited?in?the?diagram/graph/chart/table…如图所示…???12.according?to?the?chart/figures……??根据这些表(数字)……???13.as?is?shown?in?the?table……??如表格所示……?
??14.as?can?be?seen?from?the?diagram,great?changes?have?taken?place?in……???从图中可以看出,……发生了巨大变化。?
??15.from?the?table/chart/diagram/figure,we?can?see?clearly?that……or?it?is?clear/apparent?from?the?chart?that……??从图表我们可以很清楚(明显)看到……?
??16.this?is?a?graph?which?illustrates……??这个图表向我们展示了……???17.this?table?shows?the?changing?proportion?of?a?&?b?from……to……???该表格描述了……年到……年间a与b的比例关系。?
??18.the?graph,presented?in?a?pie?chart,?shows?the?general?trend?in……???该图以圆形图形式描述了……总的趋势。?
??19.this?is?a?column?chart?showing……??这是个柱型图,描述了……???20.as?can?be?seen?from?the?graph,the?two?curves?show?the?fluctuation?of……???如图所示,两条曲线描述了……的波动情况。?
21.over?the?period?from…to…the…remained?level.?在…至…期间,…基本不变。???22.in?the?year?between……and……??在……年到……期间……?
??23.in?the?3?years?spanning?from?1995?through?1998……??1995年至1998三年里……???24.from?then?on/from?this?time?onwards……??从那时起……?
??25.the?number?of……remained?steady/stable?from?(month/year)?to?(month/year)。???……月(年)至……月(年)……的数量基本不变。?
??26.the?number?sharply?went?up?to……??数字急剧上升至……?
??27.the?percentage?of…stayed?the?same?between…and……至…期间…的比率维持不变。???28.the?figures?peaked?at……in(month/year)……的数目在……月(年)达到顶点,为……???29.the?percentage?remained?steady?at……??比率维持在……?
??30.the?percentage?of…is?slightly?larger/smaller?than?that?of比例比…的比例略高(低)。???31.there?is?not?a?great?deal?of?difference?between……and………与……的区别不大。?
??32.the?graphs?show?a?threefold?increase?in?the?number?of……???该图表表明……的数目增长了三倍。?
??33……decreased?year?by?year?while……increased?steadily.???……逐年减少,而……逐步上升。?
??34.the?situation?reached?a?peak(a?high?point?at)?of[%].???……的情况(局势)到达顶(高)点,为……百分点。?
??35.the?figures/situation?bottomed?out?in……??数字(情况)在……达到底部。?
??36.the?figures?reached?the?bottom/a?low?point/hit?a?trough.数字(情况)达到底部(低谷)。???37.a?is?……times?as?much/many?as?b.??a是b的……倍。???38.a?increased?by……??a增长了……???39.a?increased?to……??a增长到……?
??40.high/low/great/small/?percentage.??比低高(低)?
??41.there?is?an?upward?trend?in?the?number?of……??……数字呈上升趋势。?
??42.a?considerable?increase/decrease?occurred?from……to………到……发生急剧上升。???43.from……to……the?rate?of?decrease?slow?down.??从……到……,下降速率减慢。???44.from?this?year?on,there?was?a?gradual?declinel?reduction?in?the……,reaching?a?figure?of……??从这年起,……逐渐下降至……???45.be?similar?to……??与……相似???46.be?the?same?as……??与……相同?
??47.there?are?a?lot?similarities/differences?between……and……???……与……之间有许多相似(不同)之处?
??48.a?has?something?in?common?with?b??a于b有共同之处。?
??49.the?difference?between?a?and?b?lies?in……??a与b之间的差别在于……???50……(year)witnessed/saw?a?sharp?rise?in……??……年……急剧上升??
开头段转述题目常用句型??
The?line?graph?describes/?illustrates/?demonstrates/?summarizes/?outlines/?shows…??后面跟名词或者从句??
开头段或者主体段引出数据或者趋势常用句型??
According?to/?As?shown?in/?As?can?be?seen?from…?后面跟图表的类型??It?can?be?seen?from?…后面跟图表的类型…?that??It?is?manifest?from…后面跟图表的类型…?that??表示上升的动词??
Go?up(went?up)?/rise(rose)/?grow(grew)/?increase(increased)/?ascend(ascended)?,?其中?rise和increase?也经常作名词,?grow-growth??表示急剧上升的动词??
Jump(jumped)/?surge(surged)/shoot?up?(shot?up)/?soar(soared)?其中surge也可以做名词??表示下降的动词??
Decline/?fall/?drop/?sink/?dip/?decrease/?descend,?其中decline/?fall/?drop/?decrease也经常?做名词??
表示急剧下降的动词??Plummet/?plunge??
表示速度快的形容词??
Sharp/?dramatic/?drastic/?rapid/precipitous/steep?副词加?-ly??
表示幅度大的形容词??
Marked/?substantial?/?significant,?副词加?-ly??表示缓慢,逐渐的形容词??
Gradual/?steady/?gentle?/?slow,?副词加?-ly??表示小幅度的形容词??
Modest/?moderate/?slight,?副词加?-ly??表示波动的动词??
Fluctuate,?不及物动词,名词fluctuation??表示稳定在一个水平上的动词??
Level?off?at/?level?out?at/?hover?at/?stabilize?at/?reached?a?plateau?at??表示达到最高的动词??
Peak?at/?reach?the?highest?point?at?,?peak?也可以做名词??表示达到最低的动词??
Reach?the?bottom?at/?the?lowest?point?at/?bottom?out?at,?bottom?也可以做名词??表示经历了某种变化的及物动词??Experience/?witness/?see??
表示达到了多少数量的及物动词或词组??
Reach/arrive?at/?amount?to?/?hit/?register/?stand?at??
表示占…(后面跟百分数或数字)的及物动词或词组??Account?for/?represent?/?constitute?/?make?up??
表示数据由某几个部分组成的既无动词或者词组??
A?is?composed?of/comprise/?is?made?up?of/?consists?of?B,C?and?D.?注意和include?区别??表示对未来数字的预测的及物动词??Project/?predict?/?forecast??表示"分别"的副词??
Respectively—in?the?2004?Olympics,?China?and?Russia?won?X?and?Y?gold?medals??respectively.??
表示"大约"的副词或者词组??
About,?around,?approximately,?roughly,?just?over,?just?under

文章来源:图表作文